Plasma Technology  

Growth rate of Gd2O3
PE-ALD films at 250 and 300 ºC as a
function of precursor dose time
Saturation can be seen at 250 ºC, but
not at 300 ºC

ALD schematic
valve between remote ICP source
and chamber,
spectroscopic ellipsometry optional


Equivalent oxide
thickness measured, extracted from
C-V measurements vs film ellipsometer
thickness measured on accompanying
pilot wafers for ALD Gd2O3 (red) and
furnace grown SiO2 (black)



Gd2O3 ALD (radical assisted by remote plasma)

High-k material with 50x reduction in gate leakage
current compared to SiO

Deposition on an OpAL with Gd(iPrCp)3
and O2 plasma

No defined ALD window –
although there appears to be a small plateau at 250 ºC

Growth Rate 1.4 Å/cycle and R.I. of 1.80

Dielectric constant of ~16

Reduction in Equivalent Oxide Thickness
compared to SiO2





Why remote plasma ALD ?

A "remote plasma" makes sure, the substrates
are NOT in contact with the plasma !

The remote plasma just cracks molecules,
so that very reactive species can be used for
the growth process.

Such reactive species often enable a very
efficient plasma preclean/ conditioning of the
substrates, lead to cleaner films and lower
the deposition temperature.

In Oxford systems it is possible to run
ALD processes using
- the thermal only method
- ozone assisted processes
- remote plasma assisted processes
together without any hardware change.
Multiple step processes using all technologies
can be chosen from the software.

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