Plasma Technology  


Bright Field TEM images:
Very large lateral grain size (~ several 100 of nm’s)
High quality crystals (homogeneous contrast:
low defect density, low strain
(after annealing)

XRD scans for annealing times from 0 - 30 min at 200° C
Shown are the Miller indices of the diffraction
peaks for cubic In2O3.

Courtesy of TU Eindhoven

In2O3:H ALD (thermal ALD)

growth temperature: 100° C
(This is the lower end of the ALD process window.
Below no growth took place.)

solid state phase crystallisation
by a short anneal at 200° C

precursor: InCp
Cyclopentadienyl indium

dose control by fast pulse ALD valve

gas: H2O / O2

1.2 A/ cycle

typical film thickness: 75 nm


ALD schematic
valve between remote ICP source
and chamber,
spectroscopic ellipsometry optional








electron mobility up to 138 cm2/ V s
at 1.8 x 1020 cm-3 carrier density

very low resistivity (0.27 mOhm cm) and
neglegible free carrier absorption

optimised for use as TCOs (transparent conductive oxides)

The films grown at 100° C show ca 4 % H content.
Such films are fully crystallised after 30 min
annealing at 200° C and have a preferential
<100> orientation.
Polycrystalline films grown at > 130° C have a
preferential <111> orientation.

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